With early help by speech language therapy many children can go to develop good
learning and literacy skills
They considered holding
him back a year, then they discovered communication disorder was already
Imagine entering a classroom for the first time only to understand just a fraction of what your teacher says. Or, knowing every answer to every question but being too afraid of your own speech to answer. Speech Language and Hearing problem can be significant roadblocks to student's education. Which is why early identification and support for communication disorders are essential before your child enter school .with this early help ,many children can go on to develop good learning and literacy skills. So be sure your child has the speech language and hearing abilities to succeed in school.
Here is a checklist that you can follow to determine if your child's speech and language
skills are developing on schedule. Anything that is checked "no "need for the consultation
to a Speech Language Pathologist.
Birth to 5 months
Reacts to loud sounds.
Turns head toward a sound source.
Watches your face when you speak.
Vocalizes pleasure and displeasure sounds (laughs, giggles, cries,
Makes noise when talked to.
6 - 11 months
Understands "no-no". Babbles (says "ba-ba-ba" or "ma-ma-ma").
Tries to communicate by actions or gestures.
Tries to repeat your sounds.
12 - 17 months
Attends to a book or toy for about two minutes.
Follows simple directions accompanied by gestures.
Answers simple questions nonverbally.
Points to objects, pictures, and family members.
Says two to three words to label a person or object (pronunciation
may not be clear).
Tries to imitate simple words.
18 - 23 months
Enjoys being read to.
Follows simple commands without gestures.
Points to simple body parts such as "nose."
Understands simple verbs such as "eat," "sleep."
Correctly pronounces most vowels and n, m, p, h, especially in
the beginning of syllables and short words. Also begins to use
other speech sounds.
Says 8 to 10 words (pronunciation may still be unclear).
Asks for common foods by name.
Makes animal sounds such as "moo."
Starting to combine words such as "more milk."
Begins to use pronouns such as "mine."
2 - 3 years
Knows about 50 words at 24 months.
Knows some spatial concepts such as "in," "on."
Knows pronouns such as "you," "me," "her."
Knows descriptive words such as "big," "happy."
Says around 40 words at 24 months.
Speech is becoming more accurate but may still leave off ending
sounds. Strangers may not be able to understand much of what is
Answers simple questions.
Speaks in two to three word phrases.
Uses question inflection to ask for something (e.g., "My ball?").
Begins to use plurals such as "shoes" or "socks" and
regular past tense verbs such as "jumped."
3 - 4 years
Groups objects such as foods, clothes, etc.
Uses most speech sounds but may distort someof the more difficult
sounds such as l, r, s, sh,ch, y, v, z, th. These sounds may not
be fully mastered until age 7 or 8.
Uses consonants in the beginning, middle, and ends of words. Some
of the more difficult consonants may be distorted, but attempts
to say them.
Strangers are able to understand much of what is said.
Able to describe the use of objects such as "fork," "car," etc.
Has fun with language. Enjoys poems and recognizes language absurdities
such as, "Is that an elephant on your head?"
Expresses ideas and feelings rather than just talking about the
world around him or her.
Uses verbs that end in "ing," such as "walking," "talking."
Answers simple questions such as "What do you do when you
4 - 5 years
Understands spatial concepts such as "behind," "next
Understands complex questions.
Speech is understandable but makes mistakes pronouncing long, difficult,
or complex words such as "hippopotamus."
Says about 200 - 300 different words.
Uses some irregular past tense verbs such as "ran," "fell."
Describes how to do things such as painting a picture.
Lists items that belong in a category such as animals, vehicles,
Answers "why" questions.
Understands more than 2,000 words.
Understands time sequences (what happened first, second, third,
Carries out a series of three directions.
Engages in conversation.
Sentences can be 8 or more words in length.
Uses compound and complex sentences.
Uses imagination to create stories.
What treatments/interventions are effective
in improving spoken
language and communication in children with
Laura Schreibman: Behavioral Interventions
Applied behavioral analyses (ABA) encompasses classic discrete
trial training (which, though effective, may be associated with
lack of generalization, spontaneous use of language or "robotic"‘responding).
Due to these issues, more naturalistic behavioral interventions
developed (which share common components (child-adult interactions
in more loosely structure environments; child initiation and
choice of materials; explicit prompting of target behavioral;
reinforcement for attempts to respond as well as correct responses).
NIH Workshop on Nonverbal School-Aged Children
April 13 – April 14, 2010
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
National Institute of Mental Health
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human